Urban Biodiversity Across Multiple Scales
Coordinator: Sandrine Pavoine - MNHN (France)
12 participants: Christopher Swan - University of Maryland Baltimore County (Baltimore, USA) ; Sonja Knapp - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (Halle, Germany) ; Olga Barbosa - Universidad Austral de Chile (Valdivia, Chile) ; Bryan Brown - Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, USA) ; Jeannine Cavender-Bares - University of Minnesota (Saint Paul, USA) ; Kevin Gaston - University of Exeter (Penryn, UK) ; Zdenka Lososová - Masaryk University (Brno, Czech Republic) ; Petr Pysek - Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Pruhonice, Czech Republic) ; Carlo Ricotta - University of Rome 'La Sapienza' (Roma, Italy) ; Marten Winter - German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (Leipzig, Germany)
Understanding how biodiversity is organized in the rapidly expanding and heterogeneous urban environment is important for its conservation. However, most analyses of urban biodiversity have so far focused on broad scale differences among cities. Here, we propose to synthesize species, trait and phylogenetic diversity of urban plant communities across spatial scales, from the plot level to the global level. Parcel level is the scale at which: (i) much human influence on biodiversity occurs, (ii) where many management decisions are made with respect to type and intensity of land use, and (iii) where co-occurrences of species lead to interactions, being responsible for community compositions. We will first analyze biodiversity within and among parcels to decipher the impact management decisions have on biodiversity at the parcel and city levels. Then, comparing such analyses across cities around the world will enable us to evaluate to what extent the processes that drive biodiversity levels within cities depend on regional and continental specifics such as climate. We propose three general outputs from this project: (1) Developing a methodology and developing software for analyzing functional, taxonomic, and phylogenetic diversity across scales; (2) Elucidating how biodiversity differs between different urban land uses; (3) Determine the impact of regional and continental drivers (e.g. climate, biogeographical history) on the processes that determine biodiversity within cities.
Anthropogenic effects, alpha-diversity, beta-diversity, functional diversity, gamma-diversity, phylogenetic diversity, turnover, urban habitats, urban land use, vascular plants